Chicago NB Citation Format

Academic writing style types dictate how work is to be presented and cited. Using the Chicago Style (notes-bibliography or NB) there are two variations depending upon whether the paper is a humanities or science paper. The most common usage of Chicago NB is for History papers, for these, the in-text citation variation using endnotes and footnotes is used. The footnote or endnote begins with the appropriate number followed by a period and then a space. Footnotes are added at the end of the page on which the source is referenced, and endnotes are compiled at the end of each chapter or at the end of the entire document (see Footnotes/Endnotes below for more information).

Using Chicago NB style the citation list is titled Bibliography and references are listed alphabetically by author, with the second and subsequent lines of each reference indented. Where author name is unavailable the reference should begin with the title. Other Chicago rules are double spacing and month abbreviation except for the months of May, June and July. Please refer to the following examples of the Chicago style for various document types.

The Chicago writing style dictates that unpublished interviews and personal conversations be cited in text or in notes rather than in the bibliography. While other styles suggest referencing internet citations in text, Chicago style does not and requires a full bibliographical reference instead.

Reference Chart

Author(s)The individual(s) who wrote the text. Sometimes there are two, three, or even more authors, and they must all be cited correctly in your paper.DateThe date the text was published.
Title of BookThe exact title of the book, complete with all words (even "small" words such as "and" and "the").Title of ArticleThe exact title of the article, complete with all words (even "small" words such as "and" and "the").
Title of PeriodicalThe exact title of the magazine or journal, complete with all words (even "small" words such as "and" and "the").VolumeFor an article, the volume (and/or number) of the magazine or journal in which the article appears (e.g. Vol. XII, No. 3)
PagesFor an article, the entire span of page(s) upon which the particular article appears in the journal or magazine; for a chapter in a book, the entire span of page(s) upon which the chapter appears in the book.Place of PublicationFor a book, the city of publication (and the state and/or country if the city is not well-known).
PublisherFor a book, the name of the publishing house (e.g. "Random House").Other InformationAny additional information, such as the URL of a reputable website, which is not included elsewhere.

Chicago Format Examples

Hover over any areas of the examples to see more information!

Journal Article

Boyle, Philip J., and Daniel Callahan. “Minds and Hearts: Priorities in Mental Health Services.” The Hastings Center Report, 1993: 3+.

Online Encyclopedia Article

Cascio, Jamais. “Jamais Cascio on Geoengineering: The Potential and Risks of Manipulating Mother Nature.” The Futurist, 14 May 2010.

Book Article or Chapter

Begin with the name of the author of the selection, not with the name of the author of the book. Then give the date of publication of the selection if known. Then give the title of the selection, “in” the title of the book; the date of publication of the “for "Edited by").

Coleridge, Samual Taylor. “The  Rhyme of the Ancient Mariner.” In Word Magic, ed. Bert Case Diltz, 123-143. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1957.

Magazine or Journal Article Retrieved from a Database Newstaff. “G8/G20 security bill to hit $833 million.” MacLeans Magazine, 25 May 2010: 15-30.

Popular Magazine Article

Donaldson, David. “When to buy organic.” Better Homes and Gardens, October 1999: 50+.

Encyclopedia Article

Kumar, Rakesh. “Inflammation.” In Anatomica, by David Bateman, 79-63. Albany: David Bateman Ltd, 2000.

YouTube Video

For videos, provide the author only if you are sure that person created the video. Do not list the person posting the video online as the author. If you are unsure, treat the citation as having no author.

bigthink. Video, Directed by Ray Kurzweil. Performed by Ray Kurzweil. YouTube 2009.

Book with an Editor

LoBello, Anthony, ed. The Commentary of Al-Nayrizi on Book 1 of Euclid's Elements of Geometry: With an Introduction on the Transmission of Euclid's Elements in the Middle Ages. Boston: Brill, 2003.

Newspaper Article

Sang-Hun, Choe. “North Korea cuts all ties with South.” The New York Times National Herald Tribune. 25 May 2010. (accessed May 26, 2010).


Bibliographical references are necessary for internet sources as follows.

Sonier, Helga. “Tablet meets Telephone! – iPads and Tablet PC’s.” Netbook Accessories. 18 May 2010. (accessed May 25, 2010).


University of Alberta. Centre for Health Evidence. 15 August 2007. (accessed May 25, 2010).


USA Gardnener. Guide to Growing Your Favorite Vegetables. USAGARDENER.COM, 2009.


Hunger. Movie, directed by Steve McQueen. London, Blast Films. 2006.


Webster, Richard. Astral travel for beginners. St. Paul: Llewelyn, 1998.


The Chicago Writing Style dictates that each time a citation is used (through direct quote or paraphrase) a footnote or endnote should be included. The number corresponding to the note with the bibliographic information for that source should be placed within the text at the end of the sentence in which the source is cited. Each time a source is used for the first time in the document all relevant information about the source should be included at the end of the page or chapter. When citing the same source again, the note need only include the surname of the author, the title (or a shortened form of the title) and the page number(s) cited.

Other Citation Formats